Gross motor skills are coordination of larger, stronger muscles groups for such activities as running, riding a bike, and throwing a ball. These muscles are also crucial for a child to get dressed and climb in and out of a car or bed. Gross, core, abdominal muscles give the child the ability to sit up straight while writing or cutting, walk on sloped hills, and carry heavy items.
Child with low muscle control oftentimes avoid or have disinterest in physical tasks and gross motor can negatively affect fine motor as well.
The great news is that there are a plethora of fun activities to increase the child's gross motor strength. Add fun activities to the child's play, entertain the child on rainy days, or follow the 1-5 Year Preschool Curricula for weekly activities specific for the child's age.
Play hopscotch to help develop balance. Create with sidewalk chalk or use painter's tape indoors.
Hop like an animal – rabbit, kangaroo, frog.
Play "Put the Fire Out." This fun outside activity involving water is used with the 2-5 Year Curriculum.
Using painter's tape, tape 10 lines on the floor or lay 10 pool noodles approximately 2' apart to form ladder rungs. Label the "top" line "10"; next line "9" on down to "1" on the "bottom" line. Standing before the "1" line, jump with feet together over the ladder rungs saying the numbers as you progress up. Work very hard not to fall down.
Progression of Jumping by Development
o 2 feet
• Jump up as many times in a row as possible
• Jump forward as many times as possible
• Jump as far as possible
• Run and jump
o 1 foot
• Forwards than backwards
Demonstrate exaggerated jumping for the child to imitate.
Begin with the child on a springy surface (cushion).
Jump up to hit a beach ball
Both indoor and outdoor trampolines are a wonderful strengthening exercise. Keep in mind that it is important to follow safety rules.
Children love to push and pull grocery carts, wagons, and other items on wheels. This activity works gross motor muscles. Another option is to tie a string or belt on a laundry basket for the child to pull around.
Progression of Throwing and Catching by Development
o Sitting to standing
o Large ball to smaller ball
o Light ball to heavier ball
o Overhand throw to underhand throw
o Two hand catch to one hand catch
Kick a soccer ball or kickball in between two objects or into an box laying on its side to create a goal .
Roll the ball while seated and stand to work different muscles.
Throwing: Throw a ball or beanbag into a box, laundry basket, or wide trashcan.
Catching: Start with a scarf or large stuffed animals.
Begin with a thick bat and slowly decrease in size.
Bat at a balloon with a tennis or racquetball racket. Be very cautious with broken balloon pieces.
Walk in a straight line.
o Place a line of tape on the floor and walk along it.
o Walk along a curb or fallen log
Give the child two paper plates to step on and skate around the room.
Create a balance board with a long 2x4" or 2x6".
While playing outside, I continually tell my children to "stay on their feet" instead of continually falling to their knees. This requires them to keep balance in rough play.
Hike on simple trails and notice nature around you.
Play music and march around the room. Add a homemade instruments to play while marching (e.g. wooden spoons to hit together, oatmeal container to drum)
Play music and dance. Encourage the kiddos to bend, twist, jump, stretch, and wave their arms.
Actions are included with all of the songs used in the ABCJesusLovesMe Curricula. Click to see a list of action songs.
Whether a tricycle, pedal car, or other outside toys, Biking and scooter play builds gross and core muscles. Don't forget the helmet!
One of the frequent gross motor activities included in the ABCJesusLovesMe Curriculum is the "Memory Obstacle Course." This obstacle-course-with-a-twist that we learned in Occupational Therapy was frequently requested by our children when they were young. They had so much fun doing it that they didn't realize they were getting exercise and learning. An added plus is that this activity can be done with more than one children at a time.